This is a static electricity generator. It operates on the triboelectric effect: charges can transfer and accumulate when certain materials are touched together. This is akin to how rubbing socks onto carpet can lead to shocks.
The rollers of the machine are made from PVC end caps, which were glued and bolted together. The bottom roller was covered in aluminum foil whereas the top roller was covered in teflon tape. The belt that connects the rollers was assembled from rubber fitness bands. When the rubber belt moves against the rollers, charges are carried from ground and accumulates onto the dome. The dome is essentially two IKEA salad bowls that were taped together.
I scrapped a fan that was lying on the sidewalk for its motor. A pair of wooden toy wheels were used for the pulley system that powers the machine.
The wheels were tapped onto the shafts of the bottom roller and the fan motor. A rubber belt connected the two pulleys, but it broke some time ago.